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Properties of shock waves in the quiet-Sun chromosphere

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dc.contributor.author Mathur, Harsh
dc.contributor.author Joshi, Jayant
dc.contributor.author Nagaraju, K
dc.contributor.author van der Voort, Luc Rouppe
dc.contributor.author Bose, Souvik
dc.date.accessioned 2023-01-18T06:20:14Z
dc.date.available 2023-01-18T06:20:14Z
dc.date.issued 2022-12
dc.identifier.citation Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 668, A153 en_US
dc.identifier.issn 1432-0746
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2248/8122
dc.description Open Access en_US
dc.description Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article is published in open access under the Subscribe-to-Open model. Subscribe to A&A to support open access publication.
dc.description.abstract Context. Short-lived (100 s or less), sub-arcsec to a couple of arcsec sized features of enhanced brightenings in the narrowband images at the H2V and K2V positions of the Ca ii H&K lines in the quiet Sun are known as bright grains. These bright grains are interpreted as manifestations of acoustic shock waves in the chromosphere. Aims. We aim to study time-varying stratified atmospheric properties, such as the temperature, line-of-sight (LOS) velocity, and microturbulence inferred from observations of the bright grains during such acoustic shock events. Methods. With simultaneous observations of a quiet-Sun internetwork region in the Fe i 6173 Å, Ca ii 8542 Å, and Ca ii K lines acquired by the CRisp Imaging Spectro-Polarimeter and the CHROMospheric Imaging Spectrometer instruments on the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope, we performed multi-line non-local thermodynamic equilibrium inversions using the STockholm inversion Code to infer the time-varying stratified atmosphere’s physical properties. Results. The Ca ii K profiles of bright grains show enhancement in the K2V peak intensities with the absence of the K2R features. At the time of maximum enhancement in the K2V peak intensities, we found average enhancements in temperature at lower chromospheric layers (at log τ500 ' −4.2) of about 1.1 kK, with a maximum enhancement of ∼4.5 kK. These temperature enhancements are co-located with upflows, as strong as −6 km s−1 , in the direction of the LOS. The LOS velocities at upper chromospheric layers at log τ500 < −4.2 show consistent downflows greater than +8 km s−1 . The retrieved value of microturbulence in the atmosphere of bright grains is negligible at chromospheric layers. Conclusions. This study provides observational evidence to support the interpretation that the bright grains observed in narrowband images at the H2V and K2V positions of the Ca ii H&K lines are manifestations of upward propagating acoustic shocks against a background of downflowing atmospheres. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher EDP Sciences en_US
dc.relation.uri https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202244332
dc.rights © H. Mathur et al. 2022
dc.subject Sun: chromosphere en_US
dc.subject Sun: atmosphere en_US
dc.subject Methods: observational en_US
dc.subject Shock waves en_US
dc.subject Line: formation en_US
dc.subject Radiative transfer en_US
dc.title Properties of shock waves in the quiet-Sun chromosphere en_US
dc.type Article en_US

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