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Title: The extended solar cycle: muddying the waters of solar/stellar dynamo modeling or providing crucial observational constraints?
Authors: Srivastava, Abhishek K
McIntosh, Scott W
Arge, N
Banerjee, D
Dikpati, Mausumi
Dwivedi, Bhola N
Guhathakurta, Madhulika
Karak, B. B
Leamon, Robert J
Matthew, Shibu K
Munoz-Jaramillo, Andres
Nandy, D
Norton, Aimee
Upton, L
Chatterjee, S
Rakesh, M
Yamini K. Rao
Rahul Yadav
Keywords: Sun: magnetism;Sun: interior;Sun: rotation;Solar cycle;sunspots
Issue Date: 22-Nov-2018
Publisher: Frontiers
Citation: Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences, Vol.5, 38.
Abstract: In 1844 Schwabe discovered that the number of sunspots increased and decreased over a period of about 11 years, that variation became known as the sunspot cycle. Almost eighty years later, Hale described the nature of the Sun’s magnetic field, identifying that it takes about 22 years for the Sun’smagnetic polarity to cycle. It was also identified that the latitudinal distribution of sunspots resembles the wings of a butterfly—showing migration of sunspots in each hemisphere that abruptly start at mid-latitudes (about ±35o) toward the Sun’s equator over the next 11 years. These sunspot patterns were shown to be asymmetric across the equator. In intervening years, it was deduced that the Sun (and sun-like stars) possess magnetic activity cycles that are assumed to be the physical manifestation of a dynamo process that results from complex circulatory transport processes in the star’s interior. Understanding the Sun’s magnetism, its origin and its variation, has become a fundamental scientific objective—the distribution of magnetism,and its interaction with convective processes, drives various plasma processes in the outer atmosphere that generate particulate, radiative, eruptive phenomena, and shape the heliosphere. In the past few decades, a range of diagnostic techniques have been employed to systematically study finer scale magnetized objects, and associated phenomena. The patterns discerned became known as the “Extended Solar Cycle”(ESC). The patterns of the ESC appeared to extend the wings of the activity butterfly back in time, nearly a decade before the formation of the sunspot pattern, and to much higher solar latitudes. In this short review, we describe their observational patterns of the ESC and discuss possible connections to the solar dynamo as we depart on a multi-national collaboration to investigate the origins of solar magnetism through a blend of archived and contemporary data analysis with the goal of improving solar dynamo understandingand modeling.
Description: Open Access
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