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Title: Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars in SDSS/Segue. I. Carbon Abundance Estimation and Frequency of CEMP Star
Authors: Lee, Y. S
Beers, T. C
Masseron, T
Plez, B
Rockosi, C. M
Sobeck, J
Yanny, B
Lucatello, S
Sivarani, T
Placco, V. M
Carollo, D
Keywords: Methods: data analysis;Stars: abundances;Stars: fundamental parameters;Surveys;Techniques: imaging spectroscopy
Issue Date: Nov-2013
Publisher: IOP Publishing
Citation: The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 146, No. 5, 132
Abstract: We describe a method for the determination of stellar [C/Fe] abundance ratios using low-resolution (R = 2000) stellar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and its Galactic sub-survey, the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE). By means of a star-by-star comparison with a set of SDSS/SEGUE spectra with available estimates of [C/Fe] based on published high-resolution analyses, we demonstrate that we can measure [C/Fe] from SDSS/SEGUE spectra with S/N ≥ 15 Å–1 to a precision better than 0.35 dex for stars with atmospheric parameters in the range T eff = [4400, 6700] K, log g = [1.0, 5.0], [Fe/H] = [–4.0, +0.5], and [C/Fe] = [–0.25, +3.5]. Using the measured carbon-to-iron abundance ratios obtained by this technique, we derive the frequency of carbon-enhanced stars ([C/Fe] ≥ +0.7) as a function of [Fe/H], for both the SDSS/SEGUE stars and other samples from the literature. We find that the differential frequency slowly rises from almost zero to about 14% at [Fe/H] ~ –2.4, followed by a sudden increase, by about a factor of three, to 39% from [Fe/H] ~ –2.4 to [Fe/H] ~ –3.7. Although the number of stars known with [Fe/H] < –4.0 remains small, the frequency of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars below this value is around 75%. We also examine how the cumulative frequency of CEMP stars varies across different luminosity classes. The giant sample exhibits a cumulative CEMP frequency of 32% for [Fe/H] ≤ –2.5, 31% for [Fe/H] ≤ –3.0, and 33% for [Fe/H] ≤ –3.5; a roughly constant value. For the main-sequence turnoff stars, we obtain a lower cumulative CEMP frequency, around 10% for [Fe/H] ≤ –2.5, presumably due to the difficulty of identifying CEMP stars among warmer turnoff stars with weak CH G-bands. The dwarf population displays a large change in the cumulative frequency for CEMP stars below [Fe/H] = –2.5, jumping from 15% for [Fe/H] ≤ –2.5 to about 75% for [Fe/H] ≤ –3.0. When we impose a restriction with respect to distance from the Galactic mid-plane (|Z| < 5 kpc), the frequency of the CEMP giants does not increase at low metallicity ([Fe/H] < –2.5), but rather decreases due to the dilution of C-rich material in stars that have undergone mixing with CNO-processed material from their interiors. The frequency of CEMP stars near the main-sequence turnoff, which are not expected to have experienced mixing, increases for [Fe/H] ≤ –3.0. The general rise in the global CEMP frequency at low metallicity is likely due to the transition from the inner-halo to the outer-halo stellar populations with declining metallicity and increasing distance from the plane.
Description: Restricted Access
ISSN: 0004-6256
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Appears in Collections:IIAP Publications

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