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Title: Comparison among Ca II K spectroheliogram time series with an application to solar activity studies
Authors: Ermolli, I
Solanki, S. K
Tlatov, A. G
Krivova, N. A
Ulrich, R. K
Singh, J
Keywords: Methods: Data Analysis;Sun: Activity;Sun: Chromosphere;Sun: Faculae;Plages
Issue Date: Jun-2009
Publisher: Institute of Physics
Citation: The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 698, No. 2, pp. 1000 - 1009
Abstract: Various observatories around the globe started regular full-disk imaging of the solar atmosphere in the Ca II K line in the early decades of the 20th century. The archives made by these observations have the potential of providing far more detailed information on solar magnetism than just the sunspot number and area records to which most studies of solar activity and irradiance changes are restricted. We evaluate the image quality and contents of three Ca II K spectroheliogram time series, specifically those obtained by the digitization of the Arcetri, Kodaikanal, and Mt Wilson photographic archives, in order to estimate their value for studies focusing on timescales longer than the solar cycle. We analyze the quality of these data and compare the results obtained with those achieved for similar present-day observations taken with the Meudon spectroheliograph and with the Rome-PSPT. We also investigate whether image-segmentation techniques, such as those developed for identification of plage regions on present-day Ca II K observations, can be used to process historic series. We show that historic data suffer from stronger geometrical distortions and photometric uncertainties than similar present-day observations. The latter uncertainties mostly originate from the photographic calibration of the original data and from stray-light effects. We also show that the image contents of the three analyzed series vary in time. These variations are probably due to instrument changes and aging of the spectrographs used, as well as changes of the observing programs. The segmentation technique tested in this study gives reasonably consistent results for the three analyzed series after application of a simple photographic calibration. Although the plage areas measured from the three analyzed series differ somewhat, the difference to previously published results is larger.
Description: Open Access
ISSN: 0004-637X
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Appears in Collections:IIAP Publications

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