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Title: Occurrence of M and N echoes at the equatorial station, Kodaikanal
Authors: Sastri, J. H
Murthy, B. S
Keywords: Ionospheric Propagation;Ionospheric Sounding;Magnetic Equator;Radio Echoes;Sporadic E Layer;Annual Variations;Diurnal Variations;Ground Stations;Histograms
Issue Date: Mar-1975
Publisher: National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources
Citation: Indian Journal of Radio and Space Physics, Vol. 4, pp. 10 - 14
Abstract: Results are presented from a study on the occurrence of M and N traces on ionograms at the equatorial station Kodaikanal, with particular reference to their associations with various sporadic configurations. It is shown that M and N echoes occur on ionograms close to the magnetic dip equator in association with sporadic E layer configurations that are characteristics of the equatorial zone. Their occurrence is characterized by the presence of either an M echo or a combination of M and N echoes and rarely as an N echo. The M and N echoes together occur mostly with blanketing type sporadic E layers and is basically a post-noon event. The M echo occurs with equatorial sporadic E and is a pre-noon event with a characteristic seasonal variation.
ISSN: 0367-8393
Appears in Collections:IIAP Publications

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