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Title: Sh2-138: physical environment around a small cluster of massive stars
Authors: Baug, T
Ojha, D. K
Dewangan, L. K
Ninan, J. P
Bhatt, B. C
Ghosh, S. K
Mallick, K. K
Keywords: Stars: formation;H ii regions;ISM: individual objects: Sh2-138;Infrared: ISM;Radio continuum: ISM
Issue Date: 21-Dec-2015
Publisher: Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society
Citation: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 454, No. 4, pp. 4335-4356
Abstract: We present a multiwavelength study of the Sh2-138, a Galactic compact H ii region. The data comprise of optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometric and spectroscopic observations from the 2-m Himalayan Chandra Telescope, radio observations from the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT), and archival data covering radio through NIR wavelengths. A total of 10 Class I and 54 Class II young stellar objects (YSOs) are identified in a 4.6 arcmin×4.6 arcmin area of the Sh2-138 region. Five compact ionized clumps, with four lacking of any optical or NIR counterparts, are identified using the 1280 MHz radio map, and correspond to sources with spectral type earlier than B0.5. Free–free emission spectral energy distribution fitting of the central compact H ii region yields an electron density of ∼2250 ± 400 cm−3. With the aid of a wide range of spectra, from 0.5–15 μm, the central brightest source – previously hypothesized to be the main ionizing source – is characterized as a Herbig Be type star. At large scale (15 arcmin ×15 arcmin), the Herschel images (70–500 μm) and the nearest neighbour analysis of YSOs suggest the formation of an isolated cluster at the junction of filaments. Furthermore, using a greybody fit to the dust spectrum, the cluster is found to be associated with the highest column density (∼3 × 1022 cm−2) and high temperature (∼35 K) regime, as well as with the radio continuum emission. The mass of the central clump seen in the column density map is estimated to be ∼3770 M⊙.
Description: Restricted Access
ISSN: 1365-2966
Appears in Collections:Publications based on data from IAO, Hanle
IIAP Publications

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